Marc Chagall created 12 painted windows at The Synagogue of the Hadassah Medical Center in 1962. The Windows represent the 12 Tribes of Israel, arranged in FOUR groups of three, and the choice of colors was inspired by the description of the breastplate of the High Priest in Exodus 28:17-21.
Picture is courtesy of “tevnin” From Flickr
In his book (De Vita Mosis 3, 209) Philo (20-50 C.E.) interpreted the names on the 12 stones of the high priest as the signs of the zodiac.
Josephus Flavius (37-100 C.E.) gave a similar explanation to the 12 stones in his book (Antiquities of the Jews Vo 3 chapter 7)
The stones were placed in FOUR rows like the zodiac signs which are arranged in FOUR groups according to the four elements: earth water fire and air.
The translation of the names of the stones from Hebre
w to English has many variations. Here’s one:
Topaz - Shimon
Emerald - Levi
Turquoise - Yehuda
Lapis Lazuli - Yissachar
Quartz - Zevulun
Jacinth - Dan
Agate - Naphtali
Onyx - Yosef
Jasper - Binyamin
Now, since each stone had a different color the comparison between a certain stone and a certain tribe was also a comparison between a certain color
and a certain tribe.
The colors of the 12 tribes according to Sefer HaTodaah of Rabbi Eliyahu Kitov:
Dark Gray: Yissachar
Light Red: Naphtali
Light Gray: Gad
Not specified: Asher
All the colors: Binyamin
The following stones are associated with Scorpio: ruby, topaz, rhodonite, rhodocrosite, sodalite, bloodstone, beryl, apache tear, aqua aura, azurite-malachite